The 2021 State Energy Strategy (SES) was developed and published by the State Energy Office at the Washington State Department of Commerce, in collaboration with stakeholders and members of the public. Designed to provide a roadmap for meeting the state’s need for affordable and reliable energy supplies and its greenhouse gas emission limits, the strategy outlines the path to a clean, inclusive energy economy by 2050. After the publication of each SES, Commerce develops an update as required by RCW 43.21F.045(2)(h). This 2023 Biennial Energy Report provides the governor and Legislature an analysis of energy issues affecting Washington residents and businesses, along with an update on recommendations made in the 2021 SES.